Hearing disabled persons face many problems in the healthcare sector due to communication barriers. To promote safe and effective use of medicine among them, it is necessary to use methods that are comprehensible to them in conveying medicine related instructions. This book is based on a research carried out among hearing disabled people in Sri Lanka, with the intention of exploring methods to overcome communication barriers between them and healthcare professionals. In this research, it was checked how they comprehend written instructions on simple drug regimens and verbal instructions by lip reading. As a novel method, pictorial labels were developed using pictograms to convey instructions on several basic drug regimens and their comprehensibility was validated among hearing disabled persons.
The aim of current study was to investigate the in-vitro performance of compress coated tablet of Atenolol. Administration of conventional tablet has been reported to exhibit fluctuation in the plasma drug level, resulting either in manifestation of side effect or reduction in drug concentration at the receptor site. Atenolol has strong absorption throughout GIT as well as in colon. But, it causes GI irritation problem. Hence it is always effective to have absorption of Atenolol at Colon site. A novel colon targeted tablet formulation was developed by press coating rapidly disintegrating tablet of Atenolol with HPMC K100M, guar gum and Eudragit S-100 as barrier layer. The device was enteric coated so that variability in gastric emptying time can be overcome and a colon specific release can be achieved. Different combinations of polymers were selected to achieve suitable lag time for the treatment of hypertension. In-vitro release study was carried out for prepared tablets, showed ...
The design of an controlled drug delivery system should be primarily aimed at achieving more predictable and increased bioavailability of drugs. Over the years, novel dosage forms have become increasingly sophisticated with major role being played by controlled release drug delivery systems. Such systems release drug at predetermined rate, as determined by drug pharmacokinetics and desired therapeutic concentration. It is evident from the recent scientific and patent literature that an increased interest in novel dosage forms that are retained in the body for a prolonged and predictable period of time exists today in academic and industrial research groups. One of the most feasible approaches for achieving a prolonged and predictable drug delivery profile in the GI tract is to control the gastric residence time (GRT). Dosage forms with a prolonged GRT, i.e. gastro-retentive dosage forms (GRDFs), provide new and important therapeutic options
Poloxamers are nonionic triblock copolymers composed of a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene. Now a day, Poloxamer are widely used in different drug delivery systems due to its biodegradability, high solubility and low toxicity. Poloxamers contain both hydrophilic and hydrophobic part, so they are used widely as surfactant and emulsifier in the formulation. Poloxamer are used in solid dispersion as solubility enhancer. Pluronic grade has thermo reversible gelation property, liquid at room temperature and convert gel at body temperature, so it is used in the control release formulation. Poloxamer are used for improve the stability of Nanoparticle and liposome. Poloxamers are used in solid suppositories for improve the dissolution of poorly soluble drugs and decrease the rectal irritation compare to conventional polymer like polyethylene glycol. Poloxamer are also used in the biological preparation as stabilizer.
Propolis was extracted with methanol and the concentrated extract was then partitioned with pet-ether,carbon tetrachloride and chloroform and ethyl acetate.The Ethyl acetate extract of Propolis were subjected to free radical scavenging activity by the method of Brand-Williams et al., 1995. Here, tert-butyl-1-hydroxytoluene (BHT) was used as reference standard. In this investigation Propolis showed moderate free radical scavenging activity with the IC50 value of 220 ?g/ml.The Ethyl acetate extract of propolis were subjected to antimicrobial screening at a dose 400 ?g/disc. The crude extract showed mild antimicrobial activity with average zone of inhibition 7-8 mm.The extract was further subjected to brine shrimp lethality test.It showed cytotoxicity with a considerable potency. The LC50 value of the ethyl acetate extract of propolis was found to be 1.089 ?g/ml.
Cancer is a major health problem in the developed and developing Countries.Inspired by the wide range of useful activities possessed by the acridine derivatives and in continuation of our efforts in search of potential anticancer agents, we have synthesized 9-anilinoacridine derivative and 9-anilino-2-methoxy acridine derivatives. The newly synthesized compounds evaluated for anticancer activities against two cancer cell lines i.e. human small cell lung cancer (A-549) cell line and human endothelial cervical cancer (HeLa) cell line in vitro by MTT assay. The most potent compound among the tested compound from above described was evaluated for in vitro short term anticancer study by Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA). An effect of acridine derivatives on DNA synthesis raised the hypothesis that acridine moieties secondary effect on biochemical pathways, including protein and lipid metabolism exists, which suggest acridine derivatives could be considered multi targets drugs.Structural...
Due to model lifestyle of peoples diabetes, obesity and hypertension are the major diseases which affects the huge population of the world. Generally Diabetes mellitus and Hypertension are frequently co-exists in majority of peoples. Therefore it is beneficial to have an agent which is effective in both condition. Obesity is one of the reason behind insulin resistance which is responsible for diabetes mellitus. so, patients are advised to reduce the weight and have some diet restriction as well. Clonidine is an anti-hypertensive agent which also produce positive effects in zucker fatty rats(fa/fa) which is a model of diabetes and obesity. Clonidine reduces weight gaining behaviour of rats as well as reduce diet intake. It also affects the the glucose level as well as insulin efficacy. It reduces cholesterol and LDL level.This all beneficial the effects are observed in single as well as in combination with metformin, which may be due to activation of imidazoline receptors.
Tasneef Yaqoob Khan,Rajinder Raina and Pawan Kumar Verma
Many indigenous medicinal plants have been found to be useful for the management of diabetes. Ipomoea carnea is one such medicinal plant used in folk medicine for treatment of leucoderma, related skin diseases and diabetes. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of hot aqueous extract, cold aqueous extract and ethanolic extract of Ipomoea carnea leaves for the management of diabetes mellitus and alleviation of oxidative stress in rats. Single i.p. administration of STZ @ 60mg/Kg to rats elevated glucose levels >225mg/dl on day 5 and such rats were divided into 7 groups with six rats in each group. Blood samples collected from retro-orbital fossa after 10 & 21days were assayed for blood glucose, lipid profile and stress biomarkers. Administration of extracts either @ 500mg/kg or 750mg/kg daily for 21days resulted in significant (P<0.05) reduction in blood glucose within 10 days. Significant (P...
Gastroretentive systems can remain in the gastric region for several hours and hence significantly prolong the gastric residence time of drugs. Prolonged gastric retention improves bioavailability, reduces drug waste, and improves solubility for drugs that are less soluble in a high pH environment. Floating microspheres are especially effective in delivery of sparingly soluble and insoluble drugs. It is known that as the solubility of a drug decreases, the time available for drug dissolution becomes less adequate and thus the transit time becomes a significant factor affecting drug absorption. For weakly basic drugs that are poorly soluble at an alkaline pH, hollow microspheres may avoid chance for solubility to become the rate-limiting step in release by restricting such drugs to the stomach.
Gunjan Jeswani,Swarnlata Saraf and Parmanand Verma
In recent years, more and more cosmetic products have been formulated with antioxidants for the treatment of facial wrinkles. But they fail to produce the desired effect. Limitations in the management of wrinkles include penetration of the antiwrinkle agent to the deeper layer of skin and the potential toxicity caused by the absorption of chemical agents. These problems can be solved with the introduction of herbal extracts and the use of modern technology. In the present study curcumin depositioning potential of transfer somes into the deeper layers of skin is investigated in order to exert its antioxidant effect.
In this book Diabetic gastroparesis has been dealt with combination of ocimum sanctum and glipizide which decreases unusual side effects like hypoglycemia and it has prevented further damage and bring back the type 2 diabetes to normoglycemic thus this book provide a proof of work and result's on animals. The models used for diabetic gastroparesis has shown significant results which the work can be taken forward for the human trails.
Ranabir Chanda,Saumya Samanta and Pranabesh Chakraborty
Bioadhesive polymers that bind to the gastric mucin or epithelial cell surface are useful in drug delivery for the purpose of (a) retaining a dosage form in the G.I tract and (b) increasing the intimacy and duration of contact of drug with the absorbing membrane. In this investigation, natural mucoadhesive materials were isolated from different edible fruits like Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Cor., Zizyphus mauritiana and Tamarindus indica by hot extraction method. Density and swelling property of natural materials were evaluated. Bioadhesive and mucoadhesive qualities of natural materials were evaluated individually by different in vitro testing methods and in vivo X-ray photograph method. It was observed that natural materials have good mucoadhesive property. Mucoadhesive tablets containing 7.5 mg of terbutaline sulphate tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. The sustained release pattern was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo studies. The drug release data were plotted using...
Cancer one of the deadliest diseases of 21st century is under extensive research worldwide. Melanoma, the most malignant entity of all skin cancers is increasing day by day at an alarming rate. Herbal plants have been in extensive use against various ailments since ancient times. The book explores the role of Ricinus communis, a medicinal plant in treatment of melanoma. This book explains the various other pharmacological applications (including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial etc) of Ricinus communis. This book also serve as reference book for research scholars and teachers with life sciences background to get further insight in the fascinating subject of cancer biology.
This book is a description of anti-diabetic activity of Spheranthus Indicus on streptozotocin induced diabetes on rats. Sphernathus Indicus which is commonly known as Gorukhmundi is a weed of Indian origin whose various activities have been proven in Charak Sahinta.The mortality rate with streptozotocin was quite low as compared to alloxan induced diabetes.The response in lowering blood sugar in fasting as well as post postprandial rats along with the lipid profile like triglycerides, LDL, VLDL with Spheranthus Indicus is quite positive. This book can be used as good resource for designing a formulation using Spheranthus Indicus.
Naproxen and ibuprofen (aryl propionic acid derivatives) both are classified as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Except HPLC, no sensitive methods were reported for both the drugs. HPLC methods suffer from two drawbacks- first; requirement of costly chemicals and second; more time consuming. Because atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) methods are simple, sensitive, rapid, reproducible and uses low cost chemicals. The objective of present research work was to develop highly sensitive and economical analytical methods for the quantitative estimation of naproxen and ibuprofen in pharmaceutical formulations by AAS. The methods were based on the reaction of naproxen and ibuprofen with copper and cobalt chloride to form coloured metal complexes. These complexes were extracted with organic solvents and digested with acids. Naproxen and ibuprofen were indirectly estimated by AAS via the determination of the copper and cobalt content in the formed complexes. The proposed methods may be...
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