With a limited labour market, it was felt that the free movement of labour would bring about a number of complications for Malta''s already limited labour market. This thesis details the principle of this freedom in the European Union, how it has affected countries throughout the Union, before outlining what impact it left on Malta and what provisions Malta made use of in order to protect its market in the years following accession.
Nargis Akhter,Mohammad Abdur Razzak and S. S. M. Sadrul Huda
The Ready Made Garments (RMG) sector emerged as an important economic sector of Bangladesh from early 1980s. The importance of RMG sector for the national economy of Bangladesh can hardly be overemphasized. The industry has contributed to export earnings, foreign exchange earnings, employment creation, poverty alleviation and the empowerment of women. In the recent past incidence of physical violence, gherao, demonstrations, rallies, work stoppages/strike, termination of workers, lay-off, lock-out, etc. in the readymade garment sector of Bangladesh have noticeably increased. In the backdrop of frequent clashes between owners of garments factories and disgruntle workers this study attempts to verify whether or not Workers'' Participation in Management (WPM) is being practiced here in the RMG Sector of Bangladesh. The study found that WPM does not in the real sense exist, in the RMG sector of Bangladesh. The researches proposed some recommendations for the...
This book examines in a comparative manner the principles and rules relating to child labour under the Nigerian Laws. It is also an analytical discourse on their enforceability. It is a fact that many children are victims of child labour in Nigeria. Therefore, this book will study the causes of child labour in the nation and will also examine applicable laws on child labour under the Shariah, Civil and Customary laws to determine deterrent punishment for child exploiters. The premise of this work is to determine how the Shariah can assist in solving the problem of child labour. It also examines how biological parents can play significant roles in solving the multi-faceted child labour problems across the nation. The research is conducted employing qualitative and quantitative methods using the available materials gathered from the library and the Internet. Materials that are obtained include the primary sources like legislation, the Qur''an and Hadith, and textbooks by all the...
The book deals with proprietary rights of women provided under Hindu succession Act, 1956. This is one of the most controversial aspects because property rights are given to the women but due to certain pre-determined social norms the women fails to exercise their rights. No doubt, to further strengthen the proprietary position, Hindu Succession Act, 1956 was amended in 2005. The amendment tries to plug the loopholes existed in 1956, but the questions remains that whether the women would exercise those rights which were provided to them under this Amended Act? In this work an effort was made to study the effect of Hindu Succession Act, 1956(along with Amendment Act, 2005)on the proprietary rights of women, the loopholes which still existed in the Act and finally suggestions were made to make it more effective. some excerpts of the work has also been referred by Karnatka High Court while deciding the property matters concerning woman.
The trends of international labor migration are considered; reasons and consequences of the changes are shown , which occur in international exchange labor resource in modern global world. The Russia'' s role on world market labour was revealled and the illegal migration''s influence on realization of social- economic changes, occurring in the russian society, directions of increasing the political''s result of the reluctance to illegal migration and warning to criminal migration are shown.
The research focuses on the labour market and immigrants from outside Europe and OECD countries living in Sweden. We investigated two main questions; the first was; what accounts for higher unemployment rates among immigrants from outside Europe and OECD countries in Sweden? And the second, what accounts for lower wages and earnings of immigrants from outside Europe and OECD countries in Sweden. We collected data by reviewing secondary sources of research on labour market statistics, recruitment process of some companies, earnings of heterogeneous immigrants and natives living in Sweden. We analyzed our data with human capital theory, disparate treatment theory and unconscious bias theory. Our findings were that, stereotypical discrimination by employers was the cause for higher unemployment rate among immigrants from outside Europe and OECD countries and perceived low skills by employers was the cause for lower earnings among immigrants from outside Europe and the OECD countries.
Zoleka Alice Florence Mzitshi and Cecil E. P. Seethal
Agriculture plays a significant role in South Africa’s export earning and in providing employment opportunities. Amongst the major agricultural crops is citrus. Within the context of postmodern and feminist geographies and utilizing the intensive research design, this paper discusses citrus production with a focus on growers and black women workers in the Kat River Valley area in Fort Beaufort, Eastern Cape. The paper also explores the challenges and implications of restructuring within agriculture for growers, cooperatives and labour within the citrus industry. It is argued that whilst legislation related to labour and tenure within agriculture has changed since the mid-1990s, power relations in the citrus industry have remained firmly entrenched, and the flexible labour strategies that the citrus farmers adopted have had serious consequences for women worker. The research would assist the various government departments, Non-Governmental Organisations, labour unions, farm...
Government policy for rural-urban migrant workers in China has been undergoing great changes since early 2000. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Chinese government excluded this group from the urban social protection system, but since early 2000, rural-urban migrant workers have gradually been included in some urban social programs. This study aims to explain this policy change and explore its effects. Both documentary analysis and case study research methods have been employed to fulfill this task. Government documents and other secondary data are examined first to provide explanations for this policy change. A case study in one city of China, namely Tianjin, was conducted to find out the effects of the policy change on rural-urban migrants’ welfare and their migration patterns. It is hoped that this study can help to enhance international understanding about the situation of rural-urban migrants and relevant policymaking in contemporary China.
China has a large number of abundance workers, especially low skilled workers. More and more Chinese are seeking for job opportunities oversea. However, Japan lacks a sufficient number of domestic low skilled workers. Japan has the demand of foreign low skilled workers. Therefore, Japan built a foreign trainee and technical intern system and a lot of Chinese workers go to Japan via this system. Most of the previous researches focus on the labour rights problems of these foreign workers in this system in Japan. This book pays more attention on the role of Chinese labour agencies. Because the Chaos governance of labour agency in China, the labour agencies infringe Chinese workers' labour rights. I hope the migration worker's rights can be improved from this research on labour agencies.
The UE population is experiencing a continual growth in average life expectancy, giving rise to the need to prolong working years for every single individual. How could it be feasible to achieve these objectives during a period of economic crisis, weighed down by soaring unemployment rates and deep cuts to the welfare system? The EU looks to “Flexicurity” which refers to a policy of LLL implementations, for the formulas that will help us to address such challenges. After examining the various existing Flexicurity models and assessing the model adopted in Italy, before and after the reform introduced with law 92/2012, we will proceed to specify how Italy can ensure the implementation of the Italian Constitution. In order to perform such check, it is useful to examine the tools (which are both public and contractual) available to ensure that Over50 workers will be in a position to adapt their professional backgrounds continually over time in order to retain working...
The aim of this book is to make a critical dispassionate evaluation of arguments for and against the unconstitutionality of mandatory retirement age for employees in South Africa. Moreover, the purpose is to ascertain what lesson can be learnt from the experience and practices in some selected foreign countries such as United Kingdom, United States of America, Canada and Australia. This is done by looking at the present position in the latter countries.
Increasing in number, Shopping malls (SMs) have a great place in people’s daily lives today. Besides their increasing number, SMs also draw the attention with their employment volume. When considered from this perspective, the problems SMs employees experience in terms of occupational health and safety are becoming more and more important. The main objective of this book is to mention various difficulties SMs employees have in occupational health and safety. Also, the book includes an example of risk assessment for SMs in order to contribute to minimizing all these problems.
The book represents a detailed analysis of the South African legislative protection afforded to HIV positive employees, against discrimination and unfair dismissal. It places various legislative provisions under scrutiny starting with International Conventions, the South African Constitution and other key protective labour legislation such as the Labour Relations Act (LRA), Act 66 of 1995 and the Employment Equity Act (EEA), Act 55 of 1998. The study appraises HIV discrimination and dismissal case law and finds contentment with the decisions. It concludes that HIV positive employees are adequately protected but suggest that more needs to be done in the workplace, to eradicate prevailing stigmatization and discrimination against these employees.
This monograph analyses the contract labour issues related to the business process outsourcing (BPO) of information technology enabled services (ITES) in India. India is one of the most popular outsourcing destinations for the ITES services. The Tenth Five Year Plan of the country identified BPO as the sunshine-sector for the country''s economy. It is in this backdrop that this monograph analyses the (contract) labour issues in the BPO-ITES sector. The monograph discusses the evolution of the contract labour system in India. It charts the development of the law relating to contact labour in the country. It analyses whether the existing legal framework of the country is adequate enough to address the issues involving the workers in the BPO-ITES sector. The monograph delineates some concrete proposals to devise a legal regime on contract labour that is attuned to the problems posed by the BPO-ITES sector. This monograph is intended for students and practitioners of Indian labour and...
From earliest years, in both England and Denmark and until around the 18th and 19th centuries, getting married was a quite uncomplicated affair, in which the law did not involve itself too much; an individual was free to ''marry'' merely by the act of sexual intercourse with their partner. Getting a divorce, on the other hand, was a completely different, highly controversial and complicated affair as the Christian idea of marriage as an indissoluble life-long union prevailed. In the course of time, however, divorce has become an available legal remedy in both countries - first with the passing of the English Matrimonial Causes Act in 1857 and later on with the Danish Marriage Act in 1922. Since then, the rules on divorce matters have developed continuously and undergone significant changes in both countries. Still, despite this relatively similar development, closer inspection has revealed that a number of substantive differences between the divorce law in the two ...
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